J2ME INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

What is 3G
Third generation (3G) wireless networks will offer faster data transfer rates than current networks. The first generation of
wireless (1G) was analog cellular. The second generation (2G) is digital cellular, featuring integrated voice and data
communications. So-called 2.5G networks offer incremental speed increases. 3G networks will offer dramatically improved data
transfer rates, enabling new wireless applications such as streaming media.

What is 3GPP
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a global collaboration between 6 partners: ARIB, CWTS, ETSI, T1, TTA, and
TTC. The group aims to develop a globally accepted 3rd-generation mobile system based on GSM.

What is 802.11
802.11 is a group of specifications for wireless networks developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE). 802.11 uses the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance) for path
sharing.
What is API
An Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of classes that you can use in your own application. Sometimes called
libraries or modules, APIs enable you to write an application without reinventing common pieces of code. For example, a
networking API is something your application can use to make network connections, without your ever having to understand the
underlying code.

What is AMPS
Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) is a first-generation analog, circuit-switched cellular phone network. Originally
operating in the 800 MHz band, service was later expanded to include transmissions in the 1900 MHz band, the VHF range in
which most wireless carriers operate. Because AMPS uses analog signals, it cannot transmit digital signals and cannot
transport data packets without assistance from newer technologies such as TDMA and CDMA.

What is CDC
The Connected Device Configuration (CDC) is a specification for a J2ME configuration. Conceptually, CDC deals with devices
with more memory and processing power than CLDC; it is for devices with an always-on network connection and a minimum of 2 MB
of memory available for the Java system.
What is CDMA
Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a cellular technology widely used in North America. There are currently three CDMA
standards: CDMA One, CDMA2000 and W-CDMA. CDMA technology uses UHF 800Mhz-1.9Ghz frequencies and bandwidth ranges from 115Kbs
to 2Mbps.

What is CDMA One
Also know as IS-95, CDMAOne is a 2nd generation wireless technology. Supports speeds from 14.4Kbps to 115K bps.

What is CDMA2000
Also known as IS-136, CDMA2000 is a 3rd generation wireless technology. Supports speeds ranging from 144Kbps to 2Mbps.

What is CDPD
Developed by Nortel Networks, Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) is an open standard for supporting wireless Internet access
from cellular devices. CDPD also supports Multicast, which allows content providers to efficiently broadcast information to
many devices at the same time.
What is cHTML
Compact HTML (cHTML) is a subset of HTML which is designed for small devices. The major features of HTML that are excluded
from cHTML are: JPEG image, Table, Image map, Multiple character fonts and styles, Background color and image, Frame and
Style sheet.

What is CLDC
The Connected, Limited Device Configuration (CLDC) is a specification for a J2ME configuration. The CLDC is for devices with
less than 512 KB or RAM available for the Java system and an intermittent (limited) network connection. It specifies a
stripped-down Java virtual machine1 called the KVM as well as several APIs for fundamental application services. Three
packages are minimalist versions of the J2SE java.lang, java.io, and java.util packages. A fourth package,
javax.microedition.io, implements the Generic Connection Framework, a generalized API for making network connections.

What is configuration
In J2ME, a configuration defines the minimum Java runtime environment for a family of devices: the combination of a Java
virtual machine (either the standard J2SE virtual machine or a much more limited version called the CLDC VM) and a core set
of APIs. CDC and CLDC are configurations. See also profile, optional package.
What is CVM
The Compact Virtual Machine (CVM) is an optimized Java virtual machine1 (JVM) that is used by the CDC.

What is Deck
A deck is a collection of one or more WML cards that can be downloaded, to a mobile phone, as a single entity.

What is EDGE
Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) is a new, faster version of GSM. EDGE is designed to support transfer rates up to
384Kbps and enable the delivery of video and other high-bandwidth applications. EDGE is the result of a joint effort between
TDMA operators, vendors and carriers and the GSM Alliance.

What is ETSI
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is a non-profit organization that establishes telecommunications
standards for Europe.

What is FDMA
Frequency-division multiple-access (FDMA) is a mechanism for sharing a radio frequency band among multiple users by dividing
it into a number of smaller bands.
What is Foundation Profile
The Foundation Profile is a J2ME profile specification that builds on CDC. It adds additional classes and interfaces to the
CDC APIs but does not go so far as to specify user interface APIs, persistent storage, or application life cycle. Other J2ME
profiles build on the CDC/Foundation combination: for example, the Personal Profile and the RMI Profile both build on the
Foundation Profile.

What is Generic Connection Framework
The Generic Connection Framework (GCF) makes it easy for wireless devices to make network connections. It is part of CLDC and
CDC and resides in the javax.microedition.io package.

What is GPRS
The General Packet Radio System (GPRS) is the next generation of GSM. It will be the basis of 3G networks in Europe and
elsewhere.

What is GSM
The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a wireless network system that is widely used in Europe, Asia, and
Australia. GSM is used at three different frequencies: GSM900 and GSM1800 are used in Europe, Asia, and Australia, while
GSM1900 is deployed in North America and other parts of the world.
What is HLR
The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database for permanent storage of subscriber data and service profiles.

What is HTTPS
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure sockets (HTTPS) is a protocol for transmission of encrypted hypertext over Secure Sockets
Layer.

What is i-appli
Sometimes called “Java for i-mode”, i-appli is a Java environment based on CLDC. It is used on handsets in NTT DoCoMo’s
i-mode service. While i-appli is similar to MIDP, it was developed before the MIDP specification was finished and the two
APIs are incompatible.

What is IDE
An Integrated Development Environment (IDE) provides a programming environment as a single application. IDEs typically bundle
a compiler, debugger, and GUI builder tog ether. Forte for Java is Sun’s Java IDE.

What is iDEN
The Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a wireless network system developed by Motorola. Various carriers support
iDEN networks around the world: Nextel is one of the largest carriers, with networks covering North and South America.
What is i-mode
A standard used by Japanese wireless devices to access cHTML (compact HTML) Web sites and display animated GIFs and other
multimedia content.

What is J2ME
Java 2, Micro Edition is a group of specifications and technologies that pertain to Java on small devices. The J2ME moniker
covers a wide range of devices, from pagers and mobile telephones through set-top boxes and car navigation systems. The J2ME
world is divided into configurations and profiles, specifications that describe a Java environment for a specific class of
device.

What is J2ME WTK
The J2ME Wireless Toolkit is a set of tools that provides developers with an emulation environment, documentation and
examples for developing Java applications for small devices. The J2ME WTK is based on the Connected Limited Device
Configuration (CLDC) and Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) reference implementations, and can be tightly integrated
with Forte for Java

What is Java Card
The Java Card specification allows Java technology to run on smart cards and other small devices. The Java Card API is
compatible with formal international standards, such as, ISO7816, and industry-specific standards, such as, Europay/Master
Card/Visa (EMV).
What is JavaHQ
JavaHQ is the Java platform control center on your Palm OS device.

What is JCP
The Java Community Process (JCP) an open organization of international Java developers and licensees who develop and revise
Java technology specifications, reference implementations, and technology compatibility kits through a formal process.

What is JDBC for CDC/FP
The JDBC Optional Package for CDC/Foundation Profile (JDBCOP for CDC/FP) is an API that enables mobile Java applications to
communicate with relational database servers using a subset of J2SE’s Java Database Connectivity. This optional package is a
strict subset of JDBC 3.0 that excludes some of JDBC’s advanced and server-oriented features, such as pooled connections and
array types. It’s meant for use with the Foundation Profile or its supersets.

What is JSR
Java Specification Request (JSR) is the actual description of proposed and final specifications for the Java platform. JSRs
are reviewed by the JCP and the public before a final release of a specification is made.

What is KittyHawk
KittyHawk is a set of APIs used by LG Telecom on its IBook and p520 devices. KittyHawk is based on CLDC. It is conceptually
similar to MIDP but the two APIs are incompatible.

What is KJava
KJava is an outdated term for J2ME. It comes from an early package of Java software for PalmOS, released at the 2000 JavaOne
show. The classes for that release were packaged in the com.sun.kjava package.

What is kSOAP
kSOAP is a SOAP API suitable for the J2ME, based on kXML.

What is kXML
The kXML project provides a small footprint XML parser that can be used with J2ME.

What is KVM
The KVM is a compact Java virtual machine (JVM) that is designed for small devices. It supports a subset of the features of
the JVM. For example, the KVM does not support floating-point operations and object finalization. The CLDC specifies use of
the KVM. According to folklore, the ‘K’ in KVM stands for kilobyte, signifying that the KVM runs in kilobytes of memory as
opposed to megabytes.
What is LAN
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a group of devices connected with various communications technologies in a small geographic
area. Ethernet is the most widely-used LAN technology. Communication on a LAN can either be with Peer-to-Peer devices or
Client-Server devices.

What is LCDUI
LCDUI is a shorthand way of referring to the MIDP user interface APIs, contained in the javax.microedition.lcdui package.
Strictly speaking, LCDUI stands for Liquid Crystal Display User Interface. It’s a user interface toolkit for small device
screens which are commonly LCD screens.

What is MExE
The Mobile Execution Environment (MExE) is a specification created by the 3GPP which details an applicatio n environment for
next generation mobile devices. MExE consists of a variety of technologies including WAP, J2ME, CLDC and MIDP.

What is MIDlet
A MIDlet is an application written for MIDP. MIDlet applications are subclasses of the javax.microedition.midlet.MIDlet class
that is defined by MIDP.
What is MIDlet suite
MIDlets are packaged and distributed as MIDlet suites. A MIDlet suite can contain one or more MIDlets. The MIDlet suite
consists of two files, an application descriptor file with a .jad extension and an archive file with a .jar file. The
descriptor lists the archive file name, the names and class names for each MIDlet in the suite, and other information. The
archive file contains the MIDlet classes and resource files.

What is MIDP
The Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is a specification for a J2ME profile. It is layered on top of CLDC and adds
APIs for application life cycle, user interface, networking, and persistent storage.

What is MIDP-NG
The Next Generation MIDP specification is currently under development by the Java Community Process. Planned improvements
include XML parsing and cryptographic support.

What is Mobitex
Mobitex is a packet-switched, narrowband PCS network, designed for wide-area wireless data communications. It was developed
in 1984 by Eritel, an Ericsson subsidiary, a nd there are now over 30 Mobitex networks in operation worldwide.
What is Modulation
Modulation is the method by which a high-frequency digital signal is grafted onto a lower-frequency analog wave, so that
digital packets are able to ride piggyback on the analog airwave.

What is MSC
A Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is a unit within a cellular phone network that automatically coordinates and switches calls
in a given cell. It monitors each caller’s signal strength, and when a signal begins to fade, it hands off the call to
another MSC that’s better positioned to manage the call.

What is Obfuscation
Obfuscation is a technique used to complicate code. Obfuscation makes code harder to understand when it is de-compiled, but
it typically has no affect on the functionality of the code. Obfuscation programs can be used to protect Java programs by
making them harder to reverse-engineer.

What is optional package
An optional package is a set of J2ME APIs providing services in a specific area, such as database access or multimedia.
Unlike a profile, it does not define a complete application environment, but rather is used in conjunction with a
configuration or a profile. It extends the runtime environment to support device capabilities that are not universal enough
to be defined as part of a profile or that need to be shared by different profiles. J2ME RMI and the Mobile Media RMI are
examples of optional packages.
What is OTA
Over The Air (OTA) refers to any wireless networking technology.

What is PCS
Personal Communications Service (PCS) is a suite of second-generation, digitally modulated mobile-communications interfaces
that includes TDMA, CDMA, and GSM. PCS serves as an umbrella term for second-generation wireless technologies operating in
the 1900MHz range

What is PDAP
The Personal Digital Assistant Profile (PDAP) is a J2ME profile specification designed for small platforms such as PalmOS
devices. You can think of PDAs as being larger than mobile phones but smaller than set-top boxes. PDAP is built on top of
CLDC and will specify user interface and persistent storage APIs. PDAP is currently being developed using the Java Community
Process (JCP).

What is PDC
Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a Japanese standard for wireless communications.
What is PDCP
Parallel and Distributed Computing Practices (PDCP) are often used to describe computer systems that are spread over many
devices on a network (wired or wireless) where many nodes process data simultaneously.

What is Personal Profile
The Personal Profile is a J2ME profile specification. Layered on the Foundation Profile and CDC, the Personal Profile will be
the next generation of PersonalJava technology. The specification is currently in development under the Java Community
Process (JCP).

What is PersonalJava
PersonalJava is a Java environment based on the Java virtual machine1 (JVM) and a set of APIs similar to a JDK 1.1
environment. It includes the Touchable Look and Feel (also called Truffle), a graphic toolkit that is optimized for consumer
devices with a touch sensitive screen. PersonalJava will be included in J2ME in the upcoming Personal Profile, which is built
on CDC.

What is PNG
Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is an image format offering lossless compression and storage flexibility. The MIDP
specification requires implementations to recognize certain types of PNG images.
What is POSE
Palm OS Emulator (POSE).

What is PRC
Palm Resource Code (PRC) is the file format for Palm OS applications.

What is preverification
Due to memory and processing power available on a device, the verification process of classes are split into two processes.
The first process is the preverification which is off-device and done using the preverify tool. The second process is
verification which is done on-device.

What is profile
A profile is a set of APIs added to a configuration to support specific uses of a mobile device. Along with its underlying
configuration, a profile defines a complete, and usually self-contained, general-purpose application environment. Profiles
often, but not always, define APIs for user interface and persistence; the MIDP profile, based on the CLDC configuration,
fits this pattern. Profiles may be supersets or subsets of other profiles; the Personal Basis Profile is a subset of the
Personal Profile and a superset of the Foundation Profile. See also configuration, optional package.

What is Provisioning
In telecommunications terms, provisioning means to provide telecommunications services to a user. This includes providing all
necessary hardware, software, and wiring or transmission devices.
What is PSTN
The public service telephone network (PSTN) is the traditional, land-line based system for exchanging phone calls.

What is RMI
Remote method invocation (RMI) is a feature of J2SE that enables Java objects running in one virtual machine to invoke
methods of Java objects running in another virtual machine, seamlessly.

What is RMI OP
The RMI Optional Package (RMI OP) is a subset of J2SE 1.3′s RMI functionality used in CDC-based profiles that incorporate the
Foundation Profile, such as the Personal Basis Profile and the Personal Profile. The RMIOP cannot be used with CLDC-based
profiles because they lack object serialization and other important features found only in CDC-based profiles. RMIOP supports
most of the J2SE RMI functionality, including the Java Remote Method Protocol, marshalled objects, distributed garbage
collection, registry-based object lookup, and network class loading, but not HTTP tunneling or the Java 1.1 stub protocol.

What is RMI Profile
The RMI Profile is a J2ME profile specification designed to support Java’s Remote Method Invocation (RMI) distributed object
system. Devices implementing the RMI Profile will be able to interoperate via RMI with other Java devices, including Java 2,
Standard Edition. The RMI Profile is based on the Foundation Profile, which in turn is based on CDC.
What is RMS
The Record Management System (RMS) is a simple record-oriented database that allows a MIDlet to persistently store
information and retrieve it later. Different MIDlets can also use the RMS to share data.

What is SDK
A Software Development Kit (SDK) is a set of tools used to develop applications for a particular platform. An SDK typically
contains a compiler, linker, and debugger. It may also contain libraries and documentation for APIs.

What is SIM
A Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) is a stripped-down smart card containing information about the identity of a cell-phone
subscriber, and subscriber authentication and service information. Because the SIM uniquely identifies the subscriber and is
portable among handsets, the user can move it from one kind of phone to another, facilitating international roaming.

What is SMS
Short Message Service (SMS) is a point-to-point service similar to paging for sending text messages of up to 160 characters
to mobile phones.
What is SOAP
The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is an XML- based protocol that allows objects of any type to communicated in a
distributed environment. SOAP is used in developing Web Services.

What is SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a socket protocol that encrypts data sent over the network and provides authentication for the
socket endpoints.

What is T9
T9 is a text input method for mobile phones and other small devices. It replaces the “multi-tap” input method by guessing the
word that you are trying to enter. T9 may be embedded in a device by the manufacturer. Note that even if the device supports
T9, the Java implementation may or may not use it. Check your documentation for details.

What is TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a second-generation modulation standard using bandwidth allocated in the 800 MHz, 900
MHz, and 1900MHz ranges.

What is Telematics
Telematics is a location-based service that routes event notification and control data over wireless networks to and from
mobile devices installed in automobiles. Telematics makes use of GPS technology to track vehicle latitude and longitude, and
displays maps in LED consoles mounted in dashboards. It connects to remote processing centers that turn provide server-side
Internet and voice services, as well as access to database resources.
What is Tomcat
Tomcat is a reference implementation of the Java servlet and JavaServer Pages (JSP) specifications. It is intended as a
platform for developing and testing
servlets.

What is UDDI
Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) is an XML-based standard for describing, publishing, and finding Web
services. UDDI is a specification for a distributed registry of Web services.

What is UMTS
Developed by Nortel Networks, Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) is a standard that will provide cellular
users a consistent set of technologies no matter where they are located worldwide. UMTS utilizes W-CDMA technology.

What is VLR
The Visitor Location Register (VLR) is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers.
What is WAE
The Wireless Application Environment (WAE) provides a application framework for small devices. WAE leverages other
technologies such as WAP, WTP, and WSP.

What is WAP
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a protocol for transmitting data between servers and clients (usually small wireless
devices like mobile phones). WAP is analogous to HTTP in the World Wide Web. Many mobile phones include WAP browser software
to allow users access to Internet WAP sites.

What is WAP Gateway
A WAP Gateway acts as a bridge allowing WAP devices to communicate with other networks (namely the Internet).

What is W-CDMA
Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA), also known as IMT-2000, is a 3rd generation wireless technology. Supports
speeds up to 384Kbps on a wide-area network, or 2Mbps locally.

What is WDP
Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP) works as the transport layer of WAP. WDP processes datagrams from upper layers to formats
required by different physical datapaths, bearers, that may be for example GSM SMS or CDMA Packet Data. WDP is adapted to the
bearers available in the device so upper layers don’t need to care about the physical level.

What is WMA
The Wireless Messaging API (WMA) is a set of classes for sending and receiving Short Message Service messages. See also SMS.

What is WML
The Wireless Markup Language (WML) is a simple language used to create applications for small wireless devices like mobile
phones. WML is analogous to HTML in the World Wide Web.
What is WMLScript
WMLScript is a subset of the JavaScript scripting language designed as part of the WAP standard to provide a convenient
mechanism to access mobile phone’s peripheral functions.

What is WSP
Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) implements session services of WAP. Sessions can be connection-oriented and connectionless
and they may be suspended and resumed at will.

What is WTLS
Wireless Transport Layer Security protocal (WTLS) does all cryptography oriented features of WAP. WTLS handles
encryption/decryption, user authentication and data integrity. WTLS is based on the fixed network Transport Layer Security
protocal (TLS), formerly known as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

What is WTP
Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) is WAP’s transaction protocol that works between the session protocol WSP and security
protocol WTLS. WTP chops data packets into lower level datagrams and concatenates received datagrams into useful data. WTP
also keeps track of received and sent packets and does re-transmissions and acknowledgment sending when needed.

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